Inclusions removal by using centrifugal force in CCM tundish


  • Yevhen Synehin
  • Serhii Sukhovetskyi
  • Lavr Molchanov
  • Svitlana Zhuravlova





The methods for non-metallic inclusions removal from steel for ladle treatment, CCM tundish and a CCM mold is discussed. It is proposed to classify steel refining methods into two groups: mechanical (blowing steel with an inert gas, electromagnetic stirring, etc.) and physical and chemical (NMIs modification, slag treatment, rational deoxidation mode). Particular attention is paid to methods aimed at a vortex forming in which NMIs flow to vortex axis due to centrifugal force. According to the calculation, the most rational way is the tangential supply of metal into the rotary chamber of the tundish. In this case, the kinetic energy of the jet flowing from the teeming ladle is used to create a vortex. According to the calculations, this energy should be enough to rotate the fluid at a speed of more than 45 rpm, which is enough to remove macroinclusions from steel.


Sahai, Y. (2016). Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. DOI: 10.1007/s11663-016-0648-3

Zhang, L., Aoki, J., & Thomas, B. (June 2006). Inclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in a Continuous Casting Mold. Metallurgical and Materials Tranactions B, 37B, P. 361-379.

Qin, X., Cheng, C., Li, Y., Zhang, C., Zhang, J., & Jin, Y. (February 2019). A Simulation Study on the Flow Behavior of Liquid Steel in Tundish with Annular Argon Blowing in the Upper Nozzle. Metals, 9(225). DOI:10.3390/met9020225

Sang-lk Chung, Young-Ho Shin & Jong-Kyu Yoon (1992). Flow Characteristics by Induction and Gas Stirring in ASEA-SKF Ladle. ISIJ International, 32(12), P. 1287-1296.

Lei, H., Jiang, J., Yang, B., Zhao, Y., Zhang, H., Wang, W., & Dong, G. (February 2018). Mathematical Model for Collision–Coalescence Among Inclusions in the Bloom Continuous Caster with M-EMS. Metallurgical and Materials Tranactions B. DOI: 10.1007/s11663-018-1186-y

Yanbin Yin, Jiongming Zhang, Qipeng Dong & QingHai Zhou (2018). Mathematical modelling of inclusion motion and entrapment in billet mould with effect of electromagnetic stirring. Ironmaking & Steelmaking. DOI: 10.1080/03019233.2018.1540519

Yanbin Yin, Jiongming Zhang, Shaowu Lei & Qipeng Dong (October 2017). Numerical Study on the Capture of Large Inclusion in Slab Continuous Casting with the Effect of In-mold Electromagnetic Stirring. ISIJ International, 347.

DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2017-347

H. Q. Yu & M. Y. Zhu (2012). Influence of electromagnetic stirring on transport phenomena in round billet continuous casting mould and macrostructure of high carbon steel billet. Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 8(39), P. 574-584.

DOI: 10.1179/0301923312Z.00000000058

Guifang Zhang, Yuehua Ding & Zhe Shi (2013). Effect of Position of Electromagnetic Stirring on Inclusion Behaviors in Billet. Advanced Materials Research, 805-806, P. 1716-1719. DOI:10.4028/

Amel F. Boudjabi, Ahmed Bellaouar, Mohammed Lachi & Nadim El Wakil (2010). Non-Isothermal Fluid Flow in a Continuous Casting Tundish. Proceedings of the ASME 2010 10th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. Istanbul. Turkey.

Šuler, B., Burja, J., & Medved, J. (2019). Modification of non-metallic inclusions with rare-earth metals in 50CrMoV13-1 steel. Materiali in Tehnologije, P. 441-447.

DOI: 10.17222/mit.2018.271

Bruno Henrique Reis, Wagner Viana Bielefeldt & Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela (April 2014). Absorption of non-metallic inclusions by steelmaking slags - A review. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 3(2), P. 179-185. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2014.03.011

Cécile Nicolia, Jean-François Carton, Alexis Vauchereta, Philippe Jacquet (January 2018). Deoxidation Impact on Non-Metallic Inclusions and Characterization Methods. Journal of Casting & Materials Engineering, 1(4), P. 97-102. DOI: 10.7494/jcme.2017.1.4.97