# Cyber-physical systems in electrochemical measurements

### Abstract

The term 'cyber-physical systems' (CPS) refers to integration of computation with physical processes [1]. Usually, the term used to describe embedded systems as well as networks monitoring and controlling physical processes which, through feedback circuits, can affect computation flows. They combine cyber capabilities (communication, computation and control) with physical capabilities (sensing and actuation) to solve problems that neither part could solve alone. Physical processes are compositions of many parallel processes. Hence, CPS are intrinsically concurrent. CPS are multi-dynamical ones: mathematical models laying in their foundations are compositions of multiple elementary dynamical aspects. CPS produce computer control decisions and are, thus, discrete.

### References

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3. Encyclopedia of electrochemistry //A.J. Bard and M. Stratmann eds, vol 3: instrumentation and electroanalytical chemistry (P.R. Unwin ed). WILEY-VCH, Weinheim 2003, 679 + X p. 349 €; ISBN 3-527-30395-2