Energy efficient solutions of DC Electric Arc Furnace Bottom Electrode


  • Sergii Timoshenko
  • Mikhail Gubinskij



DC electric arc furnace, electrovortex flows, bottom electrode, phase transition, copper-steel transition zone, energy efficiency


Analysis of recent research and publications. The problems of thermal state of billet-type bottom electrode (BE) in liquid bath of DC electric arc furnace (EAF) are associated with limited thermal conductivity of the rod in the absence of available alternative to copper-steel pair. There isn’t enough data on values of convective and Joule components of heat flux, passing through BE, initiated by electrovortex flows (EVF); regarding influence of thermophysical characteristics of transition copper-steel zone and cooling rate of BE copper part on the position of phase transition surface of steel part. Problems are considered, especially related to innovative “flat bath” steelmaking technologies, in which the possibilities of dead time pauses for periodic renewal of the BE body due to “EVF-off” are significantly limited.
Purpose. To investigate the effect of EVT on the thermal state of bottom electrode and to develop on this base the energy efficient BE solutions.
Methodology. Numerical simulations of BE thermal state and an industrial testing of essentials.
Findings & Originality. For the first time, the joint effect of EVF, Joule heat, and characteristics of BE transition zone copper – steel on the position and equilibrium thickness of solid steel part of the BE, which determines the energy efficiency of DC EAF operation, was comprehensively studied.
Research implications. Numerical simulations of EVF in DC EAF steelmaking bath and heat transfer with a phase transition through BE were carried out. The heat flux density and local EVF velocity in anode well are 1.8–2 MW/m2 and 0.75 m/s, respectively. Equilibrium thickness of solid steel BE part is critically dependent on the width of copper-steel transition zone, should not exceed 20-25 mm. Contribution of Joule component of total thermal load on the BE does not exceed 20%. Intensification of cooling rate above ≥ 20 kW/(m2K) practically doesn’t affect the BE solid steel part thickness.
Practical implications. Manufacturing technology of BE with a narrow transition zone by the method of two-stage electro-slag welding of copper on a steel billet, which ensures stable DC EAF operation and increases energy efficiency, has been improved.


Lupi, S. (2017). Fundamentals of Electroheat: Electrical Technologies for Process Heating. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 620p.

Sagermann, T. (2019) Daye Special Stell to utilize pin-type bottom electrode from SMS Group in electric arc furnace. Available at: /press-media/press-releases/press-detail/daye-special-steel1109/(assessed 12.07.2019).

Lopukhov, G.А. (2004). Bottom electrode of DC EAF “Dalieli & Co” design. Electrometallurgiya. Electromelallurgy, 6, 48-51 [in Russian].

Adachi, T., Sellan, R. (2012). The jumbo size 420 t EAF at Tokyo Steel, Japan. MPT International, 2, 54-62.

Tischenko, P.I., Tischenko, A.P, Timoshenko, S.N., Fridman, М.А. (2012). Bottom electrode of DC EAF. Metallurgicheskaya i gornorudnaya promyshlennost. Melallurgy & Mining Industry, 7, 282-284. [in Russian].

Zaitsev, V.А., Medovar, L.B., Tischenkо, P.I., Fedorovsky, B.B., Zhyravel, V.М. (2011). Two-circuit ESRT application for copper-steel DC EAF anodes manufacturing. Sovrenemmaja Electrometallurgia. Modern Electrometallurgy, 2, 14-16. [in Russian].

Solov’ev, G.I., Davidov, A.K., Marfitsin, V.V. (2003). Manufacturing of bottom electrodes by ESRT-method. Zagotovitelny proizvodstva v mashinostroenii, Procurement in engineering, 6, 12-13. [in Russian].

Patent US 5651024. H05B 7/06. Cooled bottom electrode for direct current electric furnace. G. Gensini, M. Pavlicevic. Danieli & Co Off. Mec. Spa (Italy). Priority date 05.11.1994. (www.

Patent Ru 2285356. H05B7/06. Bottom electrode of electric furnace. Malinovsky V.S., Sorokin V.А. Priority date 21.06.2004. (www.

State diagrams of binary metal systems: A reference book. Under the general. ed. N.P. Lyakishev in 3 books.B.2. (1997). М.: Машиностроение. 1024 p. [in Russian].

Liu, X., Zhou, J., Shi, H. et al. (2008). Melting mechanism of Water-cooled billet-type bottom electrode of direct current arc furnace: a numerical approach. Metallurgical and materials transactions, vol. 39B, 10, 713-724.

Kawakami, М., Takatani, R, Brabie, L. (1999). Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis of Scrap Melting in Steel Bath. Tetsu to Hagane, vol. 85, 9, 658-665.

Kutateladze, S.S., Borishansky, V.М. Heat Transfer Reference (1958). М.: Gosenergoizdat. 414 p. [in Russian].